Lister HillDespite their reputation as progressives, Alabama's U. The majority of civil rights historians do not mention Till at all; if they do mention him, he is often limited to a few sentences. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, which decreed an end to segregated schools. Sixteenth Street Church BombingViolent resistance to civil rights is most commonly associated with the reconstituted Ku Klux Klan of the 1950s and 1960s. Jones, who used his legal training to advise on resistance to desegregation; state senator Sam Engelhardt, Jr. © Liverpool John Moores University and the Contributors, 2011 Articles and reviews in this journal may be freely reproduced for use in subscribing institutions only, provided that the source is acknowledged. Board of Education, the United States Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional.
Wallace, who took office in 1963, encouraged the creation of the Committee on Constitutional Law and State Sovereignty, usually called the Sovereignty Commission, which served as a legislative arm for Wallace's efforts to halt the advance of civil rights in Alabama. Massive Resistance took many forms, including the White Citizens' Council which organized as a socially acceptable method of lawful and peaceful resistance to desegregation ; legal opposition to civil rights legislation in the U. Despite ongoing inequalities, the civil rights movement brought profound changes to Alabama, and the organized resistance of the Citizens' Councils, the Ku Klux Klan, and political opposition played an important role in that transformation. Most notably, Klan members were responsible for bombings at the homes of , , , , and at the , as well as the murder of and attempted murder of Leroy Moton, and the beatings of the Freedom Riders. Overall, progress towards economic and educational equality remains woefully slow.
Civil rights activists, however, saw them for what they really were: calculating, dangerous opponents prepared to use terrorism in their stand against reform. If you need more convincing about our long track record of providing students with rock bottom prices just check out over twenty thousand customer reviews that have been left on our Ebay store by clicking. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1999. The courts subsequently upheld the limited plan for desegregation drawn up by Blossom. The court ruled that violence and disruption could not be used as excuses to delay school desegregation. Flowers, the Committee on Negro Organizations and Black Activism in Arkansas, 1940—1957.
Most importantly, it is in good condition and intended to be used as a regular textbook for your class or job. It claims that moderate southern politicians were too fearful of an electoral backlash to formulate a strategy to promote gradual racial reform once the Supreme Court had issued its ruling. On May 17, 1954, the U. These extremist whites are caricatured as ineffectual members of the lunatic fringe. War and Wartime Changes: The Transformation of Arkansas, 1940—1945. White Citizens' Councils reached their peak of activity by the late 1950s and gradually declined in power, especially after passage of the Civil Rights Acts in the 1960s.
Massive Resistance brings together ten essays that critically assess southern white resistance to school desegregation. Finally, others believed that the extension of civil rights was inevitable, but that it should come gradually and at the direction of and local governments. Bush, , Isaac Taylor Gillam, and. Legislators also offered tuition grants to white students so they could attend private schools. It tracks the ingenious, legal, and often extralegal, means by which white southerners rebelled against the ruling: how white men fell back on masculine pride by ostensibly protecting their wives and daughters from the black menace, how ideals of motherhood were enlisted in the struggle for white purity, and how the words of the Bible were invoked to legitimize white supremacy.
While white southern elites struggled to mobilize mass opposition to racial reform, the militants led entire communities in revolt. Most Council members repudiated violence, but there were some who more easily crossed the line between legal and illegal resistance. Board of Education of Topeka, has come to mean the broader opposition to the. Together these essays demonstrate that segregationist ideology, far from a simple assertion of supremacist doctrine, was advanced in ways far more imaginative and nuanced than has previously been assumed. While Council leaders and politicians avoided openly cooperating with and supporting the Klan, but in fact their separate forms of resistance worked in concert to make continued activism on behalf of civil rights difficult, complicated, and dangerous. Though he vehemently contested these claims, Flowers stepped aside to avoid outright mutiny in the state.
Attorneys refused to represent activists arrested or imprisoned for protesting on behalf of civil rights. Eisenhower argued that it was not his place to intervene, only his duty to uphold the law of the constitution. Governors were given the power to close schools. Additionally, several members were well-placed politicians, including Montgomery judge Walter B. During the 1958 gubernatorial contest, Patterson openly solicited the endorsement of the Ku Klux Klan and went on to win the election.
In many parts of the South, esp. Car Pooling During the Montgomery Bus BoycottThe , which began in December 1955, prompted a surge in council membership across the state, particularly in , where the mayor, police commissioner, and other members of the local government, and leaders of religious organizations publicly joined. In Birmingham, for example, 's dogs and fire hoses, Klan violence, and stonewalling by white politicians did little to stop the advance of civil rights. He went on to join a violent branch of the Ku Klux Klan in Birmingham. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2002.
Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2007. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2007. Blood in Their Eyes: The Elaine Race Massacres of 1919. The men had been among the twelve who were convicted for their alleged role in the and sentenced to death. New York: Free Press, 2007. Some militant whites, however, believed it possible to win the civil rights struggle.
Till's body was removed three days later after he was abducted from the Tallahatchie River. Instead, such resistance hastened a shift in national support for the movement, emboldened activists to demand substantive changes, and encouraged the federal government to act more forcefully on behalf of civil rights in Alabama and across the South. Suburbanization in Alabama cities led to continued residential segregation as whites fled to the suburbs. Ultimately, massive resistance drew attention to continued racial inequality and highlighted the necessity for the fight for civil rights. Clive Webb is Professor of Modern American History at the University of Sussex in Brighton, England. Schools reopened on a token desegregated basis in August 1959.