Arjan converted the traditional voluntary offering to the guru into an obligatory tithe dasvandh , showing a concern for money ob- tained by open but somewhat coercive means. In his numerous speeches between 1978 and 1984, he identified three principal foes of Sikhism. The Sikh Religious Tradition: Meanings of Secularism-- -- 3. Structure and Method The scope of this book was described above as an inquiry into the ideologies of secularism and fundamentalism in the context of the religious traditions of India. Working across social theory, phenomenology, Indian metaphysics, and psychoanalysis, Singh shows that the pilgrimage provides a place in which participants can simultaneously recreate and prepare for the poor, informal economy and inevitable social uncertainties. Among institutions, it is the Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi, to which I am most heavily and happily indebted.
While some scholars consider this a limitation on their usefulness as naming words or, more so, as analytical categories, others have argued that their strength lies in this very flexibility or ambiguity of connotation. He emerged as a role model for succeeding leaders, but none of them has ever come anywhere near him in achievements see Chapter Three. The words about peace as formulated by Bhindranwale may indeed be absent; but he surely went against the spirit of gurbani. Indeed, and contrary to what is often asserted, even the classical work Ar- thashastra does'not warrant a view to the contrary. It could not be, for despite the redrawing of boundaries, Sikhs in the new state could not account for more than 54 percent of the population as against the 44 percent share of the Hindus. The Sikhs have tried thus to overcome the problem of reconciling the teachings and actions of the different gurus.
First, in October there was a congregation of Sikhs at Jallianwala Bagh, in Amritsar, where a very significant decision was taken, that is, to administer baptismal water to Sikh converts from among the so-called Hindu untouchable castes, and then lead them for prayers into the nearby Golden Temple. To begin, let me say, that 1 secularization ordinarily refers to socio-cultural processes that enlarge the areas of life — material, institutional and intellectual — in which the role of the sacred is progressively limited; 2 secularity is the resultant state of social 1. Author by : John L. English remains as a dominant force in this era of globalization. The British recognized this: in 1 890 the viceroy Lord Lansdownc had declared that the government was sympathetic to the Singh Sabha movement see Gopal Singh 1988: 625. Also included are two new appendices on secularism.
Scope, Concepts, Method 15 secularism, should be accommodated within the Christian faith. In that capacity he had mounted an offensive against the influence of the communist parties among Sikh students and achieved considerable success. The sense of political grievance deepened with the passage of time, and the Akalis repudiated any notion of the separation of religion and politics and the state that political analysts derived from the Constitution of 18. Supreme Court decisions banning prayer in public schools 1963 , and permitting abortion on demand 1973 , rekindled the clash of religious and secular values. Cultural specificities remain opaque, however, unless we employ general concepts to interpret them. Madan Delhi — S himla — Au stin 1986-1995 Acknowledgements In the preface I compared the writing of this book to going to school. Although this was against the letter and the spirit of the teachings of Nanak, it fulfilled the traditional aspirations of the people.
In his interpretations he rejected earlier liberal exegeses by traditional Iranian scholars within the framework of the relatively open Shia tradition. Together these concepts emphasized collective identity and common purpose rather than individual leadership or following. This was in conformity with the general social situa- tion in India, where religious identities arc usually defined regionally and even locally see Oberoi 1988: 136-40; 1994. It was here that the tenth guru proclaimed the formation of the Khalsa. At the same time, we cannot simply dismiss the democratic concept, since it permeates so deeply through our modernist, capitalist, and humanist selves.
The question of transcendence had been — or so the philosophers thought — set aside. Turning to Islam in South Asia, in Chapter Four, I make a distinction between orthodoxy and orthopraxis, on the one hand, and fundamentalism, on the other. In fact, as was noted earlier in Chapter Two , those Sikhs who say their daily prayers include the words raj karega khalsa the com- munity of baptized Sikhs will rule in the last prayer: they even seek to attribute this slogan without evidence to the tenth guru himself see Khuslnvant Singh 1963: 90. Besides these two very serious lapses, not all Nirankaris strictly follow currently prevalent Sikh injunctions about personal appearance. The details are as follows.
It is seen to be in greater crisis now than ever before, making a case for the continuing presence of this book. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland in 1989. How shall deliverance be obtained? More significant than these sectarian movements was the emer- gence of, first, social reform organizations called Singh Sabhas in the 1870s and, second, Hindu-Sikh estrangement in the following decades. In short, Nanak held up the ideal of raj mein jog detachment in the midst of worldly involvements for his followers to pursue. Gurdwara Agitation In the drive to establish an exclusive Sikh identity and make some fundamentals of belief and behaviour its basis, the Singh Sabhas. Islam in South Asia: Quest for Pluralism -- 6.
Bull do think that whatever exists empirically, and not also culturally — because it is not rooted in social thought — exists but weakly. Triloki Nath Madan is an anthropologist, with a Ph. He has held visiting appointments at a number of universities including Harvard where he was Visiting Professor of Anthropology and of the History of Religion in 1984-85. If treated as a product of the Enlightenment, sociology appears before us as a commentary on secularization. Islam in South Asia: Quest for Pluralism -- 6.
Although originally pastoralists in Rajasthan, the Jats had moved into Punjab from the ninth century onward, and established themselves as very hard-working and successful peasant cultivators. Not one of the first five gums ever handled arms — in general there was no occasion for it. Some individuals, however, may well be judged as sig- nificant contributors to the development of a religious tradition in ways that appear not only historic in retrospect but also meaningful today. Although the Akali movement of the 1920s was directed against the government, and was brought close to the national movement by Gandhi, it nevertheless acted as a pressure group on behalf of the Sikhs. The survey of post-Independence India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka also touches upon the tragic bereavements of six of their women leaders. Also included are two new appendices on secularism.